**These exercises are based on ****VBOX**** measurements**

- Demonstrate rules and stopping distance knowledge
- Demonstrate efficient observation including mirrors and blind spots
- Demonstrate knowledge of car legal requirements before entry.
- Demonstrate efficient performance of cockpit drill
- Start the engine and position hands and feet
- Steer 6 full turns, looking forward in 6 seconds
- Steer 6 full turns, looking backwards in 6 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 1 car length in 11 seconds (4m)
- Stop in 3 seconds, and
- Secure car In 3 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 1 car length in 11 seconds (4m)
- Stop in 3 seconds, and
- Secure car In 3 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
**Drive 1 car length & steer 6 turns in 11 seconds**- Stop in 3 seconds, and
- Secure car In 3 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
**Reverse 1 car length & steer 6 turns in 11 seconds**- Stop in 3 seconds, and
- Secure car In 3 seconds

- Position from 1 car length behind a parked car
- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer right 1.5, left 3 and right 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer left 1.5, right 3 and left 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Position from a space beside a parked car
- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- From 1 car length behind a parked car
- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 4 car lengths 16m in 11 seconds and steer 10 turns
- Steer right 1.5, left 3, right 1.5, left 1.5, right 2 and left .5 turns.
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- From 2 car lengths in front of a parked car
- Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 4 car lengths 16m in 11 seconds and steer 12 turns
- Steer right 1.5, left 3, right 1.5, left 1.5, right 3 and left 1.5 turns,
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 7 car lengths 28m in 21 seconds
- Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 7 car lengths 28m in 21 seconds
- Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer right 1.5 and left 3 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
- Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer right 3 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

- Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
- Drive 6 car lengths in 6 seconds
- Steer left 1.5 turns
- Stop accurately in 3 seconds
- Secure the car in 3 seconds

Based on VBOX measurements

Driving and Stopping speed of 10 to 120 km/h

Driving: To km/h | In S | In M | Stopping In S | Stopping In M | Stopping In S | Stopping In M |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

10 | 3 | 4 | 1 | (1) | 0.5 | (1) |

20 | 6 | (17) | 2 | (6) | 1 | (3) |

30 | 9 | (37) | 3 | (12) | 1.5 | (6) |

40 | 12 | (67) | 4 | (22) | 2 | (11) |

50 | 15 | (104) | 5 | (35) | 2.5 | (17) |

60 | 18 | (150) | 6 | (50) | 3 | (25) |

70 | 21 | (204) | 7 | (68) | 3.5 | (34) |

80 | 24 | (267) | 8 | (89) | 4 | (44) |

90 | 27 | (37) | 9 | (112) | 4.5 | (56) |

100 | 30 | (417) | 10 | (139) | 5 | (69) |

110 | 33 | (504) | 11 | (168) | 5.5 | (84) |

120 | 36 | (600) | 12 | (200) | 6 | (100) |

(S) Seconds (M) Metres

• Red shows Highway Code formula used by the RSA is incorrect
- A lane change at any speed should be done in approximately 3 seconds
- Overtaking generally requires 2 lane changes and the reason 2 are outlined
- The time remains constant while extra metres are required for each 10 lm/h speed increase

- At 10 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (16m)
- At 20 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (30m)
- At 30 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (46m)
- At 40 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (60m)

- At 50 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (76m)
- At 60 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (90m)
- At 70 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (106m)
- At 80 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (120m)

- At 90 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (136m)
- At 100 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (150m)
- At 110 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (166m)
- At 120 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (180m)

- Overtaking demonstration and practice requires the use of two cars.
- Overtaking with a 20 km/h speed difference begins and ends 2 seconds from the car in front.
- When safe Overtake only if the time and distance outlined is available as follows:

- 40 km/h Overtakes 20 km/h in 5 Seconds (56m)
- 50 km/h Overtakes 30 km/h in 7 Seconds (97m)

- 60km/h Overtakes 40 km/h in 9 Seconds (150m)
- 70 km/h Overtakes 50 km/h in 11 Seconds (214m)

- 80 km/h Overtakes 60 km/h in 13 Seconds (288m)
- 90 km/h Overtakes 70 km/h in 15 Seconds (375m)
- 100 km/h Overtakes 80 km/h in 17 Seconds (472)

- 110km/h Overtakes 90 km/h in 19 Seconds (580)

- 120 km/h Overtakes 100 km/h in 21 Seconds (700m)

**ScoreCard System Invitation**

My name is Frank Cullinane and I invite any rule maker worldwide to disprove my research findings in the following exercises.

*Frank Cullinane*

**Conclusion**

**Brain** **Bottlenecks** and Incorrect Stopping distance formulas are 2 root causes of road crashes. Deputy Garda Commissioner John Twomey and Ms. Moyagh Murdock as well as rule makers and researchers worldwide are incorrectly advised by CAS, TRL and Highway Code, and have incorrectly advised Ministers for Environment and Transport.

*Frank Cullinane*