The Exercises

The Exercises

These exercises are based on VBOX measurements

    1. Before driving begins

    1. Before driving begins

    • Demonstrate rules and stopping distance knowledge
    • Demonstrate efficient observation including mirrors and blind spots
    • Demonstrate knowledge of car legal requirements before entry.
    • Demonstrate efficient performance of cockpit drill
    • Start the engine and position hands and feet
    • Steer 6 full turns, looking forward in 6 seconds
    • Steer 6 full turns, looking backwards in 6 seconds

    2. Demonstrate driving 1 car length in 20 seconds

    2. Demonstrate driving 1 car length in 20 seconds

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 1 car length in 11 seconds (4m)
    • Stop in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure car In 3 seconds

    3. Demonstrate reversing 1 car length in 20 seconds

    3. Demonstrate reversing 1 car length in 20 seconds

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 1 car length in 11 seconds (4m)
    • Stop in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure car In 3 seconds

    4. Demonstrate driving and steering

    4. Demonstrate driving and steering

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 1 car length & steer 6 turns in 11 seconds
    • Stop in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure car In 3 seconds

    5. Demonstrate reversing and steering

    5. Demonstrate reversing and steering

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 1 car length & steer 6 turns in 11 seconds
    • Stop in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure car In 3 seconds

    Park

    Park

    6. Parallel park Position

    6. Parallel park Position

    • Position from 1 car length behind a parked car
    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer right 1.5, left 3 and right 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    7. Parallel park

    7. Parallel park

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5, right 3 and left 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    8. Perpendicular Park Position

    8. Perpendicular Park Position

    • Position from a space beside a parked car
    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    9. Perpendicular Park

    9. Perpendicular Park

    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds, and
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    Drive or reverse around a parked car

    Drive or reverse around a parked car

    10. Drive 16m around a parked car

    10. Drive 16m around a parked car

    • From 1 car length behind a parked car
    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 4 car lengths 16m in 11 seconds and steer 10 turns
    • Steer right 1.5, left 3, right 1.5, left 1.5, right 2 and left .5 turns.
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    11. Reverse 16m around a parked car

    11. Reverse 16m around a parked car

    • From 2 car lengths in front of a parked car
    • Prepare to Move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 4 car lengths 16m in 11 seconds and steer 12 turns
    • Steer right 1.5, left 3, right 1.5, left 1.5, right 3 and left 1.5 turns,
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    Drive or reverse around a corner

    Drive or reverse around a corner

    12. Drive around a corner

    12. Drive around a corner

    • Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 7 car lengths 28m in 21 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    13. Reverse around a corner

    13. Reverse around a corner

    • Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 7 car lengths 28m in 21 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5 and right 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds

    14. A turnabout or 3 point turn

    14. A turnabout or 3 point turn

    Point I
    • Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer right 1.5 and left 3 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds
    Point 2
    • Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
    • Reverse 2 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer right 3 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds
    Point 3
    • Prepare to move-off in 3 seconds
    • Drive 6 car lengths in 6 seconds
    • Steer left 1.5 turns
    • Stop accurately in 3 seconds
    • Secure the car in 3 seconds
    Total time 45 seconds

    15. The normal and emergency control of speed 10 – 120 km/h

    15. The normal and emergency control of speed 10 – 120 km/h

    Based on VBOX measurements
    Driving and Stopping speed of 10 to 120 km/h
    Driving: To km/h In S In M Stopping In S Stopping In M Stopping In S Stopping In M
    10 3 4 1 (1) 0.5 (1)
    20 6 (17) 2 (6) 1 (3)
    30 9 (37) 3 (12) 1.5 (6)
    40 12 (67) 4 (22) 2 (11)
    50 15 (104) 5 (35) 2.5 (17)
    60 18 (150) 6 (50) 3 (25)
    70 21 (204) 7 (68) 3.5 (34)
    80 24 (267) 8 (89) 4 (44)
    90 27 (37) 9 (112) 4.5 (56)
    100 30 (417) 10 (139) 5 (69)
    110 33 (504) 11 (168) 5.5 (84)
    120 36 (600) 12 (200) 6 (100)
    (S) Seconds (M) Metres
    • Red shows Highway Code formula used by the RSA is incorrect

    16. Lane Changing 10 to 120 km/h in Time and Distance

    16. Lane Changing 10 to 120 km/h in Time and Distance

    • A lane change at any speed should be done in approximately 3 seconds
    • Overtaking generally requires 2 lane changes and the reason 2 are outlined
    • The time remains constant while extra metres are required for each 10 lm/h speed increase
    Observe, Signal and position from left to right or right to left lane
    • At 10 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (16m)
    • At 20 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (30m)
    • At 30 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (46m)
    • At 40 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (60m)
    • At 50 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (76m)
    • At 60 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (90m)
    • At 70 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (106m)
    • At 80 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (120m)
    • At 90 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (136m)
    • At 100 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (150m)
    • At 110 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (166m)
    • At 120 km/h change to the right and left lane in 6 seconds (180m)

    17. Overtaking

    17. Overtaking

    • Overtaking demonstration and practice requires the use of two cars.
    • Overtaking with a 20 km/h speed difference begins and ends 2 seconds from the car in front.
    • When safe Overtake only if the time and distance outlined is available as follows:
    • 40 km/h Overtakes 20 km/h in 5 Seconds (56m)
    • 50 km/h Overtakes 30 km/h in 7 Seconds (97m)
    • 60km/h Overtakes 40 km/h in 9 Seconds (150m)
    • 70 km/h Overtakes 50 km/h in 11 Seconds (214m)
    • 80 km/h Overtakes 60 km/h in 13 Seconds (288m)
    • 90 km/h Overtakes 70 km/h in 15 Seconds (375m)
    • 100 km/h Overtakes 80 km/h in 17 Seconds (472)
    • 110km/h Overtakes 90 km/h in 19 Seconds (580)
    • 120 km/h Overtakes 100 km/h in 21 Seconds (700m)
    The aim is to eliminate road crashes worldwide

    ScoreCard System Invitation

    ScoreCard System Invitation

    ScoreCard System Invitation

    My name is Frank Cullinane and I invite any rule maker worldwide to disprove my research findings in the following exercises.

    Frank Cullinane

     

    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    Conclusion

    Brain Bottlenecks and Incorrect Stopping distance formulas are 2 root causes of road crashes. Deputy Garda Commissioner John Twomey and Ms. Moyagh Murdock as well as rule makers and researchers worldwide are incorrectly advised by CAS, TRL and Highway Code, and have incorrectly advised Ministers for Environment and Transport.

    Frank Cullinane

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