The Driving ScoreCard System

by


Frank Cullinane

2019

 

150 years of road fatalities 20  

 

Driving since 1885

 

The aim is to eliminate road crashes worldwide

 

About the Author

Frank Cullinane witnessed, investigated and researched over 1,000 fatal road crashes.

I witnessed, investigated and researched over 1,000 fatal road crashes.  I worked alongside and participated in sport with young people who were involved in crashes, some of which were fatal and others with injuries so severe that they required a lifetime of care and attention.  I wrote the Driving ScoreCard System, based on VBOX measurements to be taught over a 3-year period, preferably between 12 and 17 years of age.  The aim is to eliminate road crashes worldwide, not just death and injury crashes.

Frank Cullinane

 

Introduction

According to the sign displayed at the entrance to the University Hospital Galway, “It takes 10,000 hours to be good at what you do”.  This is 5 years to learn a skill trade or profession. Since 1899, drivers are the only skill performers taught worldwide with the aid of dual controls, in 2 to 12 hours and with 5 incorrect Transport Research Laboratory TRL stopping formulas.  When these drivers are tested in 50 km/h areas with ramps installed dictating a speed of 20 km/h, they crash, fatally injure themselves and over 1.5 million road users worldwide annually.  There are over 100 injuries for each fatality, with an estimated 10,000 material damage crashes for each fatality, most of which are never reported or recorded.  It is these fatalities and injuries that are wasting police crash investigators time, causing delays on the roads, overcrowding and a waste of the medical staff time at University Hospital Galway Accident and Emergency Departments and Accident and Emergency Departments all over Ireland and worldwide.

The normal braking distances outlined are for a standard car, dry or wet one-way up or downhill roads and Emergency braking is not required when a car is driven normally, so therefore is not included in totals.

Learning most skills, trades or professions performed while stationary, seated, or at running speed require an apprenticeship of 3 to 7 years, with a dropout rate of approximately 25% in many cases.  The Driving ScoreCard System is designed based on research of road crashes, VBOX measurements and the findings of neuroscientists, to be taught by qualified teachers, without the aid of dual controls. The Driving ScoreCard System standard can assess the standard and speed limitation or the medical profession, rule makers, driver trainers and testers, Police, roads, cars and their drivers worldwide to 120 km/h in 48 seconds 800 metres.

The Road Safety Strategy 2013 – 2020 states:      “There are now many professionals working in the area of road safety with the state; these include staff in the Road Safety Authority, National Roads Authority, Health and Safety Authority, National Transport Authority, Local Authorities and Government departments as well as in the private sector. Yet there is no academic qualification in the subject of road safety. The Road Safety Authority RSA will examine the feasibility of some academic authority establishing such a qualification within the lifetime of this strategy”.

It may now be a fear of the consequences and loss of revenue which prevents many rule makers from admitting to their mistakes

  • · I invite rule makers worldwide to disprove my findings, by demonstration, not in writing.

The Driving ScoreCard System is as follows:

 Frank Cullinane

Stage 1: The Driving ScoreCard System

Acceleration (Drive) and braking (Stop) are related tasks with speed increased at a rate of 10 km/h each 3 seconds and stopped normally 3 times faster in 1 second and stopped in emergency 6 times faster in 0.50 seconds. When speed doubles the time required also doubles, while the distance required increases 4 times and two-way road traffic require two distances in one time.

The Driving ScoreCard System to be taught without the aid of dual controls has many advantages. The time required to Brake to a Stop is not alone known by drivers but also by their passengers. Speed of 120 km/h takes 36 seconds to achieve and 12 seconds to brake to a stop, simply remove the ‘0’ to find stopping time from speed. 

The 4 Step Driving ScoreCard System is designed so that Steps 1 and 4 may be taught while stationary or as a passenger in a car from 12 years of age, while all exercises should be observed as they are performed by other drivers.  360-degree Observation includes mirrors and shoulder check.

Exercise 1: The Driving ScoreCard System 4 Steps

Learn by Observing others;

The Driving ScoreCard System in

5

Years

15,000

Kilometres

And about the car Manual

 

 

Checks

 

 

Law

 

 

Rules

 

 

          360-degree Observation

 

 

          Anticipation

 

 

          Reaction

 

 

Coordination

 

 

Concentration

 

 

Commentary

 

 

 

 

 

The Driving ScoreCard System

 

 

Step 1: Prepare to Move-Off

 

 

Step 2: Drive to Speed Km/h, or

 

 

          Reverse

 

 

          Park streets and car parks

 

 

          Turn Left and Right

 

 

          Lane Change

 

 

          Roundabouts

 

 

          Traffic Lights

 

 

          Yield

 

 

          Pass

 

 

          Judgement Distance/Speed

 

 

          Judgment Height/Weight

 

 

          Overtake

 

 

 

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally

 

 

       Is 3 times faster than Drive

 

 

       Stop in Emergency

 

 

      Is 6 times faster than Drive

 

 

 

 

 

Step 4: Secure the car

 

 

 

Exercise 2: Understanding Speed of 10 km/h

The control of 10 km/h requires 4 seconds in 5 metres, while

10 km/h between 110 and 120 km/h requires 4 seconds but 128m

Time required remains the same, but distance increases 26 times

The Highway Code Stopping should be in Time and Distance.

The Rules of the Road stopping is copied from the Highway Code.

The difference in controlling speed of 10 km/h

The control of 10 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

 

 

 

Step 2: Drive to 10 km/h

3

4

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

1

1

Total Time/Distance Required

4

5

The Control of 10 km/h between 110 and 120 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

 

 

 

Step 2: Drive from 110 to 120 km/h

3

96

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

1

32

Total Time/Distance Required

4

128

 

 

 

This is a reason Drivers Crash

 

 

Exercise 3: Prepare to Move-off & Secure the Car

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Prepare to Move-off

3

 

On a slight hill, select first gear

 

 

Clutch pedal to biting point

 

 

Two Hands on steering wheel

 

 

Indicator covered

 

 

Observe 360° including mirrors

 

 

Signal if helpful or useful

 

 

Acceleration if necessary

 

 

Release the hand/parking brake

 

 

 

 

 

Secure the car

3

 

Apply the hand/parking brake

 

 

Put the gear to neutral

 

 

Cancel the signal if on

 

 

Release the clutch pedal

 

 

Cover clutch and accelerator pedals

 

 

 

Exercise 4: Steering 6 turns while Observing

Forward and Backwards

Car Parked straight 30 cm from a kerb or marker

Efficient Steering and Observation without accelerating

Steering while observing Forward and in Mirrors

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Car secured and Engine Started

 

 

Clutch and Accelerator Covered

 

 

          Steer 1.5 turns left

1.5

 

          Steer 3 turns right

3

 

          Steer 1.5 turns left

1.5

 

Total Time Required

6

 

                       

Steering while observing Backwards

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Car secured & Engine started

 

 

Clutch & Accelerator covered

 

 

          Steer 1.5 turns left

1.5

 

          Steer 3 turns right

3

 

          Steer 1.5 turns left

1.5

 

Total Time Required

6

 

Acceleration in error is Crash Cause

 

 

Stage 2: The control of speed in restricted space

Exercise 5: Drive or Reverse 1 car length

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Clutch Control and Slow speed Driving

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move-Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 4 metres

9

4

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

18

4

                                                               

Reverse 1 car length

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Clutch Control and Slow speed Reversing

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move-Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 4 metres

9

4

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

18

4

 

Exercise 6: Drive and Reverse 4 metres and Steer

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Slow Driving and Fast Steering

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move-Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 4m and steer 6 turns

9

4

                             Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

                             Steer left 3 turns

 

 

                             Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

18

4

Reverse 4 metres and Steer

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Slow Reversing and Fast Steering

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move-Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 4m and steer 3 turns

9

4

                             Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

                             Steer left 3 turns

 

 

                             Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

18

4

Exercise 7: Position and Parallel Park

Position to Park from behind a parked car                                           

Requires: Coordination of the Eyes, Hands and Feet

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 8m and Steer 6 turns

6

8

                               Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

                               Steer left 3 turns

 

 

                               Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

2

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

14

8

                                                                                                                

Parallel Park

From a position 1m beside a parked car

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 8m and Steer 5 turns

6

8

                               Steer left 1 turn

 

 

                               Steer right 2.5 turns

 

 

                               Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

2

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

14

8


Exercise 8: Position and Perpendicular park

Drive from a space beside a parked car

Requires; Coordination of the Eyes, Hands and Feet

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 8m and Steer 3 turns

6

8

          Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

          Steer right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

2

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

14

8

                                                                                                                

Perpendicular Park

Reverse from a space 1m in front of a parked car

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 8m and Steer 3 turns

6

8

                             Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

                             Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

2

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

14

8

Exercise 9: Drive and Reverse 16 metres around a car

Drive from a space behind a parked car

Requires: Coordination of the Eyes, Hands and Feet

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 16m & Steer 10 turns

11

16

                              Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer left 3 turns

 

 

                              Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer right 2 turns

 

 

                              Steer left .5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

20

16

                                                                                                                

Reverse 16m around a parked car

Reverse from a space 8m in front of a parked car

Requires: Coordination of the Eyes, Hands and Feet

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 16m & Steer 12 turns

11

16

                              Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer left 3 turns

 

 

                              Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

                              Steer right 3 turns

 

 

                              Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

20

16

 

Exercise 10: Drive and Reverse left 28m around a corner

3 car lengths before, 1 on and 3 car lengths after corner

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Efficient Driving, Steering and Observation

The Driving ScoreCard System in

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 28m and steer 3 turns

21

28

                             Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

                             Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop straight 30cm from kerb

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

30

28

                                                                                                                

Reverse 28m left 7 car lengths around a corner

3 car lengths before, 1 on and 3 car lengths after corner

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Efficient Reversing, Steering and Observation

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 28m and steer 3 turns

21

28

                             Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

                             Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop straight 30cm from kerb

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

30

28

 

Exercise 11: A Turnabout or three-point turn

Car 4m long, road 8m wide and 16m long

Begin and end straight 30 cm from the kerb

Required: Efficient Driving, Steering and Observation

Point 1

 

 

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 8m & steer 4.5 turns

6

8

                           Steer Right 1.5 turns

 

 

                           Steer left 3 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop accurately

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Time Required in Distance

15

8

 

Point 2

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Reverse 8m and steer 3 turns

6

8

                                Steer right 3 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop accurately

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Time Required in Distance

15

8

 

Point 3

 

 

The Driving ScoreCard System

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive 24m and steer

6

24

                            Steer left 1.5 turns

 

 

Step 3: Stop accurately

3

 

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Time Required in Distance

15

24

                       Total turns of steering 9

 

 

Total Time Required in Distance

45

40

 

Exercise 12: Control of a speed of 10 km/h

Required: Efficient coordination of Eyes, hands and Feet

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 10 km/h

3

4

          Change to right lane

3

8

          Change to left lane

3

8

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

1

1

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

0.50

0.50

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

16

21

 

Exercise 13: Control of 20 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 20 km/h

6

18

          Change to right lane

3

17

          Change to left lane

3

17

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

2

6

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

1

3

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

16

58


Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 20 km/h is in the same 2 seconds

Stopping Distance from 20 km/h is in two 6m distances, so

If 20 km/h is correct two-way then 30 km/h is correct one-way.

Exercise 14: Control of 30 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 30 km/h

9

38

      Change to right lane

3

25

      Change to left lane

3

25

      30 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

1.5

6

      15 km/h to 30 km/h after a turn

4.5

18

      30 km/h overtakes 10 km/h

6

50

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

3

12

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

1.5

6

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

36

174

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 30 km/h is in the same 3 seconds

Stopping Distance from 30 km/h is in two 12m distances, so

If 30 km/h is correct two-way then 42 km/h is correct one-way.


 Exercise 15: Control of 40 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 40 km/h

12

67

      Change to right lane

3

33

      Change to left lane

3

33

      40 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

2.5

9

      15 km/h to 40 km/h after a turn

7.5

26

      40 km/h overtakes 20 km/h

8

89

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

4

22

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

2

11

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

46

279

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 40 km/h is in the same 4 seconds

Stopping Distance from 40 km/h is in two 22m distances, so

If 40 km/h is correct two-way then 56 km/h is correct one-way.

Stage 5: Control Speeds of 50 to 80 km/h

Exercise 16: Control of 50 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 50 km/h

15

105

      Change to right lane

3

42

      Change to left lane

3

42

      50 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

3.5

24

      15 km/h to 50 km/h after a turn

10.5

73

      50 km/h overtakes 30 km/h

10

139

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

5

35

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

2.5

17

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

56

460

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 50 km/h is in the same 5 seconds

Stopping Distance from 50 km/h is in two 35m distances, so

If 50 km/h is correct two-way then 71 km/h is correct one-way.

  • · Ramps are a misunderstanding of speed limits

Exercise 17: Control of 60 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 60 km/h

18

150

      Change to right lane

3

50

      Change to left lane

3

50

      60 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

4.5

37

      15 km/h to 60 km/h after a turn

13.5

112

      60 km/h overtakes 40 km/h

12

200

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

6

50

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

3

25

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

66

649

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 60 km/h is in the same 6 seconds

Stopping Distance from 60 km/h is in two 50m distances, so

If 60 km/h is correct two-way then 85 km/h is correct one-way.

Exercise 18: Control of 70 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 70 km/h

21

204

      Change to right lane

3

58

      Change to left lane

3

58

      70 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

5.5

42

      15 km/h to 70 km/h after a turn

16.5

126

      70 km/h overtakes 50 km/h

14

272

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

7

68

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

3.5

34

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

76

828

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 70 km/h is in the same 7 seconds

Stopping Distance from 70 km/h is in two 68m distances, so

If 70 km/h is correct two-way then 99 km/h is correct one-way.

Exercise 19: Control of 80 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 80 km/h

24

267

      Change to right lane

3

67

      Change to left lane

3

67

      80 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

6.5

72

      15 km/h to 80 km/h after a turn

19.5

216

      80 km/h overtakes 60 km/h

16

355

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

8

89

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

4

44

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

86

1,133

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 80 km/h is in the same 8 seconds

Stopping Distance from 80 km/h is in two 89m distances, so

If 80 km/h is correct two-way then 113 km/h is correct one-way.

There are few clear 1,133 metre roads in which to teach this

Setting amber/yellow light time at 3 seconds is a mistake

What cannot be taught, cannot be tested.

Stage 6: Control Speeds of 90 and 100 km/h

Exercise 20: Control of 90 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

                       

   

Step 2: Drive to 90 km/h

27

338

      Change to right lane

3

75

      Change to left lane

3

75

      90 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

7.5

94

      15 km/h to 90 km/h after a turn

22.5

281

      90 km/h overtakes 70 km/h

18

450

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

9

112

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

4.5

56

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

96

1,425

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 90 km/h is in the same 9 seconds

Stopping Distance from 90 km/h is in two 112m distances, so

If 90 km/h is correct two-way then 127 km/h is correct one-way.

Exercise 21: Control 100 km/h

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 100 km/h

30

417

     Change to right lane

3

83

     Change to left lane

3

83

    100 km/h to 15 km/h before a turn

8.5

118

    15 km/h to 100 km/h after a turn

25.5

354

    100 km/h overtakes 80 km/h

20

555

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

10

139

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

5

69

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

106

1,749

Stopping and speed limits on two-way roads:

Stopping Time two-way from 100 km/h is in the same 10 seconds

Stopping Distance from 100 km/h is in two 139m distances, so

If 100 km/h is correct two-way then 141 km/h is correct one-way.

Stage 7: Control Speeds of 110 to 120 km/h on Motorways

Exercise 22: Control of 110 km/h on a Motorway

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 110 km/h

33

504

     Change to right lane

3

92

     Change to left lane

3

92

     110 km/h overtakes 90 km/h

22

672

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

11

168

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

5.5

84

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

78

1,528

 

Stopping and speed limits on one-way and motorway roads:

Stopping Time from 110 km/h is in 11 seconds

Stopping Distance from 110 km/h is in 168m, so

If 110 km/h is correct one-way then 78 km/h is correct two-way

Exercise 23: Control 120 km/h on a Motorway

The Driving ScoreCard System

4 Steps in Time & Distance

Seconds

Metres

Step 1: Prepare to Move -Off

3

 

Step 2: Drive to 120 km/h

36

600

      Change to right lane

3

100

      Change to left lane

3

100

      120 km/h overtakes 100 km/h

24

800

Step 3: Stop normally 3 times faster

12

200

        Stop in Emergency 6 times faster

6

100

Step 4: Secure the car

3

 

Total Time Required in Distance

84

1,800

Stopping and speed limits on one-way roads:

Stopping Time from 120 km/h is in 12 seconds

Stopping Distance from 120 km/h is in 200m, so

If 120 km/h is correct one-way then 85 km/h is correct two-way.

Conclusion

Having discovered the previously undiscovered relationship between acceleration and braking the Driving ScoreCard System is designed based on VBOX measurements to establish the standard and speed limitation of; doctors, rule makers, driving instructors, driving testers, roads cars and their drivers to maximum speed limits allowed or their speed limitations, in any country worldwide.

I invite the Transport Research Laboratory TRL the designer of the present stopping distance formulas and their 1,000 clients in 145 countries worldwide, as well as Competence Assurance Systems CAS, the designer of the Road Safety Authority RSA Essential Driver Training Lessons EDT in 12 hours and the RSA, including the European Transport Safety Council ETSC, the European Commission EC, Europe Direct ED, the Driver Vehicle and Standards Agency DVSA, the Highway Code, Police, Gardai, the Health and Safety Authority HSA, the National Standards Association of Ireland NSAI, the Irish National Accreditation Board INACB, the Garda Siochana Ombudsman Commission GSOC, the Policing Authority and any rule maker worldwide to disprove my research findings by demonstration (Not in writing) while using VBOX, the world’s most accurate recorder of speed in time and distance.

The aim of my research is to eliminate all road crashes worldwide, not just death and injury crashes.

Drivers achieving and maintaining the Driving ScoreCard System should not crash.

Frank Cullinane

Road Traffic Crash Researcher and Investigator

2019